Practised in Africa and other parts of the world, the WHO recently estimated that over million females have been circumcised so far, and an additional three million are at risk of circumcision each year, nearly cases a day . First recorded in Egypt in the 5th Century BC, and noted on a papyrus from Memphis in 2nd Century BC, its historic background goes back more than years. Some ancient Egyptian mummies were found to have been circumcised. It is a destructive procedure, criminalised by law in most countries, and considered a crime against humanity . It is usually performed before puberty, but can be done at any age . Under this classification, simple aesthetic gynaecology procedures such as labiaplasty and clitoral hood reduction are unjustifiably categorised as FGM.
Female genital cosmetic and plastic surgery: a review.
Clitoral Hood Reduction Techniques | Plastic Surgery Key
The term "vaginal rejuvenation" covers several different cosmetic procedures for female genitalia, such as labiaplasty and vaginoplasty. Excess folds of the clitoral hood, or prepuce, can be reduced with a clitoral hood reduction. The procedure is most commonly done along with a labiaplasty. The extra folds can create a bulge that is exaggerated when the labia minora are reduced, and a clitoral hood reduction can improve the balance in appearance of the female genitalia.
Clitoral hood reduction
CHR is a procedure that is often confounded with clitoral hood removal, clitoroplasty, clitoral unhooding, clitoral hoodectomy, clitoropexy, hoodoplasty, dorsal slit surgery, lysis of adhesions, and unhooding. In the context of this chapter, the hood is the prepuce of the clitoris and is analogous to the penile foreskin. I intentionally do not use the term circumcision, because it has negative connotations and is often confused with clitoral amputation.
Clitoral hood reduction, also termed clitoral hoodectomy ,  clitoral unhooding , clitoridotomy ,   or partial hoodectomy , is a plastic surgery procedure for reducing the size and the area of the clitoral hood prepuce in order to further expose the clitoral glans of the clitoris. It is sometimes done as a form of elective surgery where the therapeutic goals are to improve the sexual functioning of the patient and the aesthetic refinement of the vulva. It is a form of hoodplasty. The reduction of the clitoral prepuce tissues usually is a subordinate surgery within a labiaplasty procedure for reducing the labia minora , and occasionally within a vaginoplasty procedure.